Lesson 9: Conjunctions

In this lesson, we will explore conjunctions, their types, and their uses in sentences. Conjunctions are words that connect words, phrases, or clauses, helping to form complex and cohesive sentences.

Definition of Conjunctions

Conjunctions are words that link other words, phrases, or clauses together. They are essential for constructing sentences that are clear and fluid.


  • and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet, because, although, since, unless


  • She likes to read and write.
  • He was tired, but he finished his work.

Types of Conjunctions

  1. Coordinating Conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions connect words, phrases, or independent clauses that are of equal importance. There are seven coordinating conjunctions in English: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (A helpful acronym to remember them is FANBOYS.)


  • I want to buy a new book, but I don’t have enough money.
  • She can come with us, or she can stay at home.
  1. Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions connect an independent clause with a dependent clause, indicating a relationship between the two clauses.


  • Because it was raining, we canceled the picnic.
  • She will succeed if she works hard.

Common Subordinating Conjunctions:

  • because, although, since, unless, if, when, while, after, before, as
  1. Correlative Conjunctions

Correlative conjunctions are pairs of conjunctions that work together to join words or phrases of equal importance.


  • Either you start working now, or you will not finish on time.
  • Both the teacher and the students were excited about the project.

Common Correlative Conjunctions:

  • either/or, neither/nor, both/and, not only/but also, whether/or

Examples and Usage

  1. Coordinating Conjunctions:
    • She wants to buy a car, and he wants to buy a motorcycle.
    • They were hungry, so they made dinner.
  2. Subordinating Conjunctions:
    • We went inside because it was cold.
    • She stayed home although she felt better.
  3. Correlative Conjunctions:
    • Neither the manager nor the employees knew about the changes.
    • He is not only a good singer but also a talented dancer.

Avoiding Common Conjunction Errors

  1. Comma Splices: Avoid using a comma to connect two independent clauses without a conjunction.
    • Incorrect: She loves painting, she spends hours on it.
    • Correct: She loves painting, and she spends hours on it.
  2. Fragmented Sentences: Ensure dependent clauses are connected to an independent clause.
    • Incorrect: Although it was raining.
    • Correct: Although it was raining, we went for a walk.
  3. Parallel Structure: Use conjunctions to join similar grammatical structures.
    • Incorrect: She likes to swim, jogging, and to bike.
    • Correct: She likes to swim, to jog, and to bike.

This lesson provided an in-depth look at conjunctions, covering their types and uses in sentences. Understanding these concepts is crucial for constructing clear and cohesive sentences. In the next lesson, we will explore sentence construction and how to combine sentences effectively. Check Lesson 10: Sentence Construction.