Essential Words For TOEFL



v. to change or make different
v. altered
syn. modify
n. alteration
adj. alterable
adv. alterably

  • Will the storm alter its course and miss the coast?
  • Gloria hasn’t altered her plans to return to school.


v. to study something carefully; to separate into parts for study
v. analyzed
syn. examine
n. analysis

  • Scientists must analyze problems thoroughly.
  • Analysis of the substance confirms the presence of nitrogen.


adj. something from a long time ago; very old
syn. old

  • Archaeologists analyze ancient civilizations.
  • Dave found an ancient Roman coin.


adj. a slight bother; disturbing to a person
n. annoyance
syn. bothersome
v. annoy
adv. annoyingly

  • Mosquitoes can be an annoying part of a vacation at the beach.
  • She annoyed her parents by coming home late.


v. to think about or prepare for something ahead of time
adj. anticipatory
syn. predict
n. anticipation

  • No one can anticipate the results of the games.
  • They planned their vacation with anticipation.


v. to discover; find out
adj. ascertainable
syn. determine
adv. ascertainably
n. ascertainment

  • I tried to ascertain if he was telling the truth.
  • The jury made a decision based on its ascertainment of the facts.


adj. doing no harm or damage; gentle
syn. harmless

  • He has a warm, benign smile that makes everyone comfortable.
  • The mold on the plants proved to be benign.


v. to follow established rules or patterns of behavior
n. conformity
syn. adapt
n. conformist

  • You must conform to the rules or leave the club.
  • She has always been a conformist.


v. to make rich; to make something of greater value
n. enrichment
syn. enhance
adj. enriching

  • The fine arts enrich our lives.
  • The discovery of oil was an enrichment for the country


v. to make stronger in feeling or quality
n. intensity
syn. heighten
adj. intense
adj. intensive
adv. intensely
adv. intensively

  • The importance of the test will sometimes intensify the nervousness of the students.
  • The chess match was played with great intensity.


adj. difficult or painful to experience; not able to accept different ways of thought or behavior
n. intolerance
syn. unbearable
adv. intolerably
adv. intolerantly
adj. intolerant

  • Any opposition to the rules is intolerable.
  • His boss was intolerant of his tardiness.


adj. continuing
syn. current

  • The tutoring project is an ongoing program of the school.
  • Maintaining roads is an ongoing job.


n. an ability, happening, or opportunity that has not occurred or been developed
adj. potential
syn. possibility
adv. potentially

  • The medical students have shown great potential to become doctors.
  • Small space heaters are a potential fire hazard.


v. to suggest or plan to do something
n. proposal
syn. suggest
n. proposition
adj. proposed

  • The governor is going to propose new taxes.
  • Her proposal was well accepted.


v. to give back or bring back something; to return to the original condition
n. restoration
syn. revitalize

  • He restored my confidence in him.
  • It is a beautiful restoration of the old table.


adj. to be in a disordered, disturbed, or unstable condition
n. turbulence
syn. chaotic
adv. turbulently

  • The plane flew through an area of turbulence.
  • The turbulent crowd insisted on a meeting with the prime minister.


adj. of great importance; full of life
n. vitality
syn. indispensable
adv. vitally

  • Money is vital to the success of the program.
  • His intense vitality was easily observable.