Lesson 2: Parts of Speech

Understanding the parts of speech is essential for mastering English grammar. They are the building blocks of sentences. In this lesson, we will cover the eight parts of speech: nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections.

1. Nouns

Definition: Nouns are words that name people, places, things, or ideas.


  • People: teacher, student, John
  • Places: school, city, park
  • Things: book, apple, car
  • Ideas: freedom, love, knowledge

Types of Nouns:

  • Common Nouns: General names (e.g., dog, city)
  • Proper Nouns: Specific names (e.g., Rover, Paris)
  • Countable Nouns: Can be counted (e.g., books, cars)
  • Uncountable Nouns: Cannot be counted (e.g., water, music)

2. Pronouns

Definition: Pronouns replace nouns to avoid repetition.


  • Personal Pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, we, they
  • Possessive Pronouns: my, your, his, her, its, our, their
  • Reflexive Pronouns: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
  • Relative Pronouns: who, whom, whose, which, that


  • John is a student. He loves reading. (He replaces John)

3. Verbs

Definition: Verbs describe actions, states, or occurrences.


  • Action Verbs: run, jump, write
  • State of Being Verbs: am, is, are, was, were
  • Auxiliary (Helping) Verbs: be, do, have
  • Modal Verbs: can, could, will, would, shall, should, may, might, must


  • Present: She runs.
  • Past: She ran.
  • Future: She will run.

4. Adjectives

Definition: Adjectives describe or modify nouns and pronouns.


  • Descriptive Adjectives: big, small, beautiful
  • Quantitative Adjectives: few, many, several
  • Demonstrative Adjectives: this, that, these, those
  • Possessive Adjectives: my, your, his, her, its, our, their


  • The big dog barked.
  • She wore a beautiful dress.

5. Adverbs

Definition: Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. They often answer the questions how, when, where, and to what extent.


  • How: quickly, slowly
  • When: now, later
  • Where: here, there
  • To what extent: very, quite


  • She sings beautifully.
  • He ran quickly.

6. Prepositions

Definition: Prepositions show the relationship between a noun (or pronoun) and another word in the sentence.


  • Location: in, on, at
  • Time: before, after, during
  • Direction: to, from, toward


  • The book is on the table.
  • She arrived after dinner.

7. Conjunctions

Definition: Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or clauses.


  • Coordinating Conjunctions: and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet
  • Subordinating Conjunctions: because, although, since, unless
  • Correlative Conjunctions: either/or, neither/nor, both/and


  • I like tea and coffee.
  • She will go if it stops raining.

8. Interjections

Definition: Interjections are words or phrases that express strong emotion or surprise.


  • Oh!, Wow!, Ouch!, Hey!


  • Wow! That’s amazing.
  • Ouch! That hurts.

This lesson covered the eight parts of speech, providing definitions, examples, and usage for each. Understanding these basics is crucial for constructing proper sentences. In the next lesson, we will explore sentence structure and how these parts of speech come together to form sentences. Check Lesson 3: Sentence Structure.